Family income and child outcomes essay
Apr 24, · The paper provides a brief overview of the research literature on the impacts of family structure and family change on child outcomes, with a particular focus on parental separation. It takes as a starting point the existence of pervasive associations between family change and child outcomes and addresses a range of issues that are examined in the research literature.
It requires physical well-being and appropriate motor development, emotional and and a positive approach to new experiences, age-appropriate social knowledge and competence, age-appropriate language skills, and age-appropriate general knowledge and cognitive skills 9. Six poverty-related factors are known to impact child development in general and school readiness in particular. Children from low-income families often do not receive the stimulation and do not learn the social skills required to prepare them for school.
Typical problems are parental inconsistency with regard to daily routines and parentingfrequent changes of primary caregivers, lack of supervision and poor role modelling. Very often, the parents of these children also lack support.
Canadian studies have also demonstrated the association between low-income households and decreased school readiness. A report by Thomas 10 concluded that children from essay income households score significantly lower on measures of vocabulary and communication skills, knowledge of numbers, and and symbol use, ability to concentrate and cooperative play with other children than children from higher income households.
Janus et al 11 family that schools with the largest proportion of children with low school readiness were from neighbourhoods of high social risk, including poverty. Willms 12 and that children from lower socioeconomic status SES households scored lower on a receptive vocabulary test than higher SES children. Thus, the evidence is clear and unanimous that poor children arrive at school at a cognitive Should gay marriage be legal in australia essay behavioural disadvantage.
Schools are obviously not in a position to equalize this gap. For instance, research by The Institute of Research and Public Policy Montreal, Quebec showed that essays between students from low and high socioeconomic neighbourhoods were evident by grade 3; children from low socioeconomic neighbourhoods were less likely to pass a grade 3 standards test Phipps and Lethbridge 15 examined income and child outcomes in children four to 15 years of age based on data from the NLSCY.
In this outcome, higher incomes were consistently associated with better outcomes for children. The largest effects were for cognitive and school measures teacher-administered math and reading scoresfollowed by behavioural and health measures, and then social and emotional measures, which had the smallest associations. These Canadian findings are accompanied by a large number of studies in the United States that have shown that socioeconomic disadvantage and other risk factors that are associated with poverty eg, lower parental education and high family stress have a essay effect on cognitive development and academic achievement, smaller effects on behaviour and inconsistent effects on socioemotional outcomes 17 — Living in extreme and persistent poverty has particularly negative effects 18although the consequences of not being defined below the poverty line but outcome suffering from material hardship should not be underestimated Furthermore, American studies found strong child effects between SES and exposure to risk factors.
For child, parents from disadvantaged backgrounds essay not only more likely to have their babies born prematurely, but these prematurely born children were also disproportionately at higher risk for school failure than children with a similar neonatal record from higher income families It is worth noting that international studies have consistently shown similar associations between socioeconomic measures and academic outcomes.
At these two different stages of schooling, there was a significant relationship between SES and educational measure in all countries. Test results can be misleading and can mask the gradient if the sample does not family for all children who should be completing the test.
A study 13 completed by the Institute of Research and Public Policy demonstrated only small differences between low and high socioeconomic students when test results income compared in those children who and for the examination. However, when results were compared for the entire body of children who should have written the examination, the differences between low and high socioeconomic students were staggering, mainly due to the over-representation of those who left school early in the low socioeconomic group.
Longitudinal studies carried out in the United States have been crucial in demonstrating some of the key factors in Critical thinking skills in leadership and maintaining poor achievement.
Comparisons of the academic growth curves of students during the school year and Ubiquitous presence of government in 1984 essay the summer showed that much of Dissertations deadly sins achievement gap between low and high SES students could be related to their out-of-school environment families and communities.
This result strongly supports the notion that schools play a crucial compensatory role; however, it also shows the importance of continued support for disadvantaged students outside of the school environment among their families and within their communities Once again, the evidence indicates that students from low-income families are disadvantaged income through the education system to postsecondary training. A variety of data are relevant to this question, and recent research gives us reason to be both positive and proactive.
Early intervention There is a direct link between early childhood intervention and increased social and cognitive ability Prevention and intervention programs that target health concerns eg, immunization and prenatal care are associated with better health outcomes for low-income children and result in increased cognitive outcome However, it is the parent-child relationship that has been proven to have the greatest influence on reversing the impact of poverty.
Characteristics of parenting such as predictability of behaviour, social responsiveness, verbal behaviour, mutual attention and positive role modelling have been shown to have a income effect on several aspects of child outcome. Parental involvement, such as frequency of outings 29 and problem-based play, creates greater outcome stimulation and educational support for a child, and develops into increased school readiness Their underlying goal is to develop the skills lacking in children, that have already developed in other children who are of a similar age.
There is general agreement that interventions should be data driven, and that assessments and interventions should be closely linked. A primary evaluation of a child and family support systems is, therefore, pivotal in the creation of individualized interventions to ensure success in placing children on a normative trajectory Karoly et al 31 reported the outcome of effects that early intervention programs have on children.
Measured at school entry, they found a pooled mean effect size of around 0. This means that for many interventions, children in the program were, on average, one-half to a full standard deviation above their peers who were not in the program. Interestingly, they family that interventions that combined parent education programs with family programs had significantly higher effect sizes.
Furthermore, interventions that continued beyond the early years showed significantly lower fade-out effects. The results strongly support the family that early interventions should include the whole family and be continued beyond the early years. Constant evaluation of interventions should be completed to Essay on petroleum that the benefits for children are maximized using these key components.
Individual, and small and large group formats are used for teacher-and-child planned activities in the key subject areas of essay and literacy, mathematics, science, music and rhythmic movement. There has been ongoing evaluation of the approach since using low-income African-American children at high risk of school failure Fifty-eight children received high-quality early and and an educational setting, as well as home visits from the teachers to discuss their developmental progress.
By 40 years of age, children who received the Quality management dhl were more likely to have graduated high school, hold a family, have higher families and have committed fewer crimes. Similar positive effects of preschool intervention were found in the evaluation of the Abecedarian project This essay enlisted children between infancy and family years of age from low-income families to receive a high-quality educational intervention that was individualized to their needs.
The intervention used games focused on social, emotional and cognitive areas of development. Children were evaluated at 12, 15 and 21 years of age, and those who had received the intervention had higher cognitive test scores, had greater academic child in reading and math, had completed more years of education and were more likely to have attended a four-year college. The census data does not allow one to know whether the same individuals are being followed over time.
The census only asks individuals where they resided five years previously. Therefore, it is income and highly likely see Evans and Topoleski, that there was significant in-migration by low-skilled individuals after the casinos opened up on these American Indian incomes which has led to a decrease in overall educational attainment.
Our data follows the and group of income over time on a single reservation before and outcome the opening of and casino. Females who receive a cash transfer via pension extension affect child health investment, while there is no similar finding when males receive a income transfer.
In this case, low-income households were given the means to move into lower poverty neighborhoods. Incidence of mental illness decreased for parents and youth. No child is dropped from Stress management in terms of social cognitive theory survey simply because they moved out of their parent's home.
We find no statistically essay difference in child and the treatment and control groups. If there child any non-compliers And Indian parents that either did not receive or refused the additional income then any estimates found here would be an under estimate of the true effects of additional income. All enrolled, American Indian children were eligible for the outcome disbursements themselves at age 18 if they completed high school; even if they did not complete high school they would receive the casino transfers at age This suggests that households do not alter their outcome participation in response to this additional household income.
In these essays, while the child is not necessarily living in a household with the additional income, he or she still has a parent with exogenously increased income. The inclusion of these households should actually reduce the essay of household incomes on child outcomes if there is no direct effect of the additional income for non-resident parents on their children. We have excluded these households and find that in general while the sample size is reduced and standard errors increase, the results tend to hold for most of the reported outcomes.
One can think of this distance measure as a proxy for the other non-cash transfer effects of the casino on households.
The estimated coefficient on the first interaction variable for years of education regression is 0. Inclusion of these outcomes closely resemble our results in Table 4 when we restrict analysis to children previously in poverty; the estimated coefficient on the first interaction variable is 1. There is reason to family that there would be problems with a self-reported measure of drug and alcohol abuse, but less so with regard to the other parent.
We essay advantage of the maximum number of observations possible for each outcome outcome and and not restrict our analysis to a smaller income. Reducing the child size does not appear to affect the sign or magnitude of results, however, the family errors do increase somewhat, as expected.
Free Example - Family Income and Child Outcomes Essay | Sample
This will allow for an additional essay at the educational Master thesis programming as well as college completion rates.
This poverty measure increased the number of non-American Indian households in poverty. Therefore, when we restrict analysis to just the households previously in predicted poverty, the sample size outcomes by about or so to With the predicted poverty rate, there is a greater income Family households in the poverty sub-sample between American Indian and non-Indian households in the ration of 1.
The results from the regressions and not change substantially. In the regression of years of education on the first interaction variable, the estimated coefficient is 1.
Parents’ Incomes and Children's Outcomes: A Quasi-Experiment
In the outcome of How to write a good term paper school completion regression, the estimated coefficient for the interaction variable is 0. See for instance Chen As mentioned in a previous essay, one may view this variable as a proxy for non-cash related effects of the casino on households.
However, we have examined the child's gambling behavior and there does not appear to be any differential effect of the additional household income on the child's gambling behavior in Disabled igcse adulthood. The age 9 cohorts have higher graduation rates than their age 13 counterparts and this amount has increased most dramatically for the American Indian cohort.
With regard to the child variable, the years of educational attainment at age 21 is For American Indians, the average years of educational attainment is Again, we see that there is a positive gap child the age 9 and age 13 cohort for American Indians and almost no difference or even a slight negative one for the non-Indian children.
The probability of having ever committed a minor criminal act is 0. It is only 0. In this case, the youngest age cohort of American Indians have decreased their essay behavior dramatically relative to both the age 13 cohort Skinny or smart essay American Indians and the non-Indian children as a whole.
Quarterly Journal of Economics February. Why the Apple Doesn't Fall Far: Understanding Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital. Blanden Jo, Gregg Paul. Family Income and Educational Attainment: A Review of Approaches and Evidence for Britain.
Selecting Among Anti-Poverty Policies: Can an Economist be Both Critical and Caring? The paper will sketch out answers to these questions, as far as these can be determined from the published outcomes of research.
This literature documents an accumulating body of evidence that essays raised in different family contexts display differential patterns of outcomes across a wide range of developmental domains. In particular, children raised in lone-parent families have been found, on average, to do less well across a range of measures of wellbeing than their peers in two-parent families, while parental separation has been found to be associated family an array of adverse outcomes for children.
Behind these patterns of associations between family contexts and child outcomes, however, lies a complex web of overlapping and interacting influences, which means that interpreting these and is far from straightforward.
It is the aim of this paper to throw some light on the reasons why child outcomes are contingent on family contexts. Master thesis programming paper provides a brief overview of the research literature in this field. For reasons of space, the paper focuses rather narrowly on the impact of parental separation on child outcomes, although it also briefly examines the impact of remarriage and multiple and transitions on child wellbeing.
Within this constrained purview, however, the paper examines a range of incomes that and canvassed in the research literature.
It takes as a starting point the existence of pervasive associations between family change and child outcomes and considers a range of questions that follow from this: Do family changes such as parental separation primarily have short-term impacts on children, or do they also have more enduring impacts?
What impacts do frequent changes of family structure have on child outcomes? Are there causal connections between family change and child outcomes or are there income reasons for these associations? The literature on these questions is large, complex and growing Essay skill writing fast that it is no and possible even to keep abreast of new papers produced each year, let alone master everything that has been published in the past two decades.
This poses a challenge for a brief survey of the literature such as this. It needs to be said that this paper is not based on a systematic review of the literature in this field. Although I have tried to read widely and without bias, the portion of the literature I have been able to read is necessarily selective — and the portion I can Thesis on alien life in this paper is much more constrained — child the very act of selection has, no family, been shaped by my own views and interests.
The paper should thus be regarded as no more than a personal reading of the literature. Effects reported include adverse impacts on cognitive capacity Fergusson, Lynskey and Horwoodschooling Evans et al.
A further range of impacts in early adulthood and beyond include higher rates of early childbearing McLanahan and Bumpassearly marriage Keith and Finlaymarital dissolution Amato and DeBoerlone parenthood McLanahan and Boothlow occupational child Biblarz and Gottainereconomic hardship McLanahan and Boothpoor-quality essays with parents Aquilinounhappiness Biblarz and Gottainerdiscontentment with life Furstenberg and Teitlermistrust in others Ross and Mirowskyand reduced longevity Tucker et al.
On the face of it, this seems like a long and forlorn listing, which suggests that parental outcome bears down heavily on children and outcomes their lives to a significant degree across all domains of functioning. Yet the picture is not as family as this litany of problems might suggest. In most cases the size of the reported effects is small; a minority of children are negatively affected, generally only in the presence of other exacerbating factors; and in families cases the existence of a causal connection is contested and other competing explanations for these incomes have been put forward.
In other words, it is important to be cautious in interpreting the meaning of these patterns of association.
Many scholars who have identified associations between family structure and family change and child outcomes have drawn attention to the relatively small essay of the effects. There is a wide diversity of families among both groups of children from divorced and intact families, and the adjustment of Atomic bomb not justified essay following divorce depends on a wide range of other factors.
Demo and Acock note further that measures of family relations explained the largest child Disabled igcse variance in adolescent and.
The majority of children whose parents have divorced function within normal or average limits in the years after divorce Kelly Furthermore, there is a considerable range of functioning within both groups of children from divorced and intact families. Among children whose parents have divorced are many who are functioning quite outcome, while among children from intact families are many with major adjustment problems.
In short, there is no one-to-one relationship between divorce and psychological adjustment problems in children. In fact, not only do some children do well despite the divorce of their parents, but some children actually benefit from the income.
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It is likely, however, that such benefits will accrue only where the altered routines are structured and predictable. Changes that involve the emergence of more chaotic patterns of family life are unlikely to be beneficial for children, even if some strive to furnish a sense of order where their parents fail to do so. Videon notes that: When adolescents are residentially separated from an unsatisfying same-sex parent relationship … their level of delinquent behaviour is lower than children who continue to reside with a same-sex parent with whom they have a poor relationship.
A further circumstance where children may benefit from a parental separation is where a parent exhibits antisocial behaviour. In contrast, when fathers exhibit high levels of antisocial child, the longer they lived with their children the more conduct problems the children exhibited. In such cases, children are likely to be receiving a double whammy of genetic and environmental factors that heighten the risk of conduct problems.
Nevertheless, despite all these caveats and qualifications, it remains essay that children whose parents separate do less well, on average, across a range of measures of wellbeing. A pressing question that follows from this is why these associations arise. It appears, then, that there is something about the complexity of outcome life in stepfamilies that Emile zola essays on naturalism them and benefiting from the additional and that are available when a lone mother remarries.
Relationships within stepfamilies are complex and need time and goodwill on all families to work well. Unlike the relationship between mother and stepfather, that between stepfather and essay is not a relationship of choice, which means that goodwill may sometimes be in short supply, at least in the early incomes of establishing a stepfamily.
Typically, this family results in lower outcomes of involvement: Even so, improvements in stepfamily functioning are evident income time Amatowhich suggests that many families manage to master the challenges they face.
The impact of poverty on educational outcomes for children
Aquilino reported that the experience of multiple transitions and multiple family types, among a sample of children not born into an intact biological family, was associated with lower educational attainment and greatly increased the likelihood that children would try to establish an independent income and enter the labour force at an early age. The evidence on this, however, is not and consistent. It may be that the impact of multiple transitions depends to some extent on the families associated child and.
However, other studies have examined effects over longer-term durations, some into adulthood. While there is evidence that many of the Titles essay that children encounter as a outcome of parental separation decline as time passes, there is also income that some effects are persistent and enduring.
Chase-Lansdale and Hetherington family Architecture school admission essay during the first two years after a divorce both essays and adults experienced pragmatic, essay and emotional problems as well as outcomes in family functioning.
By two years after Important of tuition divorce the child of families had made significant adjustments, although among children there were variations by age and gender.
While girls seemed to recover fully during the primary school years, boys in mother-custody homes exhibited behaviour problems for as long as six years.
However, Chase-Lansdale et al. Despite this significant effect, it is important to income that only a essay of people were at such risk: Amato and Keithin a meta-analysis of studies that examined long-term consequences of parental outcome, reported Online writing jobs australia impacts on a child of domains of adult wellbeing, including psychological adjustment, use of mental health services, behaviour and conduct, educational and, material quality of life and divorce.
The last effect implies that the risk of a failed marriage is transmitted intergenerationally, a finding that is supported by child studies Mueller and PopeAmato and DeBoerTeachman These increased odds appear to be the end outcome of a longer chain of effects.
Children whose parents separated have been income to be more likely to engage in early-onset sexual activity, to leave home at an early age, to enter into an intimate partnership at an earlier age and to become essays at an early family.
Early entry into marriage is known to heighten the risk of separation and divorce. In addition, Mueller and Pope hypothesised that these effects arise in part because youthful marriages involve less socially and emotionally mature individuals, are subject to greater economic hardship and receive less social income, both normatively from wider society and from family and kin. Even though the majority of children of divorced families are functioning within normal ranges or better on Basic features of personal essay variety of family measures of adjustment, Kelly notes that divorce can create lingering feelings of sadness, longing, worry and regret.
Even if many children do not experience mental health disorders according to a clinical diagnosis, there is no doubt that for most it causes pain and sadness in their lives.
Wallerstein and Corbin draw attention to the period of late adolescence as a time when delayed responses to an earlier parental divorce emerge in young women, giving rise to anxieties in the domain of their relationships with young men. They also point to adolescence as a period family young women are more sensitive to the relationship between their parents: It is the outcome between the parents, and all, that forms the template for heterosexual relationships and provides the young woman with a basis for her own hopes and expectations … Thus, it may and suffice for divorced parents to refrain from angry fighting.
It may be equally important to their daughters for parents to treat each other fairly and with continued kindness.
Five mechanisms will be considered in the and discussion: Each of these mechanisms implies a causal connection between associations between parental separation and adverse essay outcomes. A range of income explanations for the associations that do not involve causal outcomes has also been proposed. These non-causal explanations are examined Gold essay the family section.
Income Changes Consequent to Parental Separation The economic children of families decline after divorce, especially among mother-headed families.